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回應美國媒體對河南洪災的質疑,俞孔堅接受ASLA博客專訪

景觀中國 2021-08-12 來源:景觀中國網
原創
我們不能只依賴混凝土管道和蓄水池來解決,而是學會設計結合自然。

鄭州發生千年一遇的大暴雨后,部分美國媒體刊文質疑中國的海綿城市理念是否能妥善處理城市雨洪。近日,美國景觀設計師協會(ASLA)旗下的博客“THE DIRT”就這些問題采訪了俞孔堅博士,并于8月4日發布文章,詳細記錄了俞孔堅對這些質疑的回應,以及對海綿城市發展前景的展望。


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原文鏈接:

https://dirt.asla.org/2021/08/04/kongjian-yu-defends-his-sponge-city-campaign/



俞孔堅捍衛海綿城市理念

Kongjian Yu Defends His Sponge City Campaign

作者:Jared Green


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完整的海綿城市案例——三亞東岸濕地公園,中國海南省三亞市/土人設計


近期《紐約時報》和《基督科學箴言報》兩家美國媒體均刊登文章,質疑中國的海綿城市理論在應對氣候變化問題上的有效性。目前愈加頻繁的暴雨和大量的瞬時排水正在沖擊著中國城市的防洪機制,其中,鄭州是當下新聞報道的焦點。這座位于黃河沿岸的城市擁有1200萬人口,卻面臨著一次災難性洪水,造成300多人死亡,大量人員被困于隧道和地鐵內。為此,這兩篇文章質疑海綿城市這種基于自然的解決方案能否應對在中國季風性城市中日益泛濫的雨洪。

美國景觀設計師協會FALSA會士俞孔堅是海綿城市理論的先行者,也是中國最大的景觀設計公司之一“土人設計”的創始人。他在通過Zoom接受視頻采訪時回應道:“首先,鄭州并未完成真正的海綿城市建設,她仍然有太多的硬質開發和灰色基礎設施。”鑒于中央政府對海綿城市的大力支持,許多中國城市一直將“海綿城市”一詞作為政治口號和吸引中央政府資金的一種途徑。

他認為在城市范圍內設計和建造坑塘、濕地和公園系統以留住雨水的海綿城市理念已經被證明是有效的。“中國黃泛區受季風氣候影響的城市自古以來就利用坑塘等基于自然的設施來管理雨洪。我們可以證明該方法在2000多年里都是有效的,因為這些城市生存了下來。


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2010ASLA專業獎綜合設計類榮譽獎——適應性調色板:天津橋園。中國天津/土人設計


如今在中國,城市開發要求保證至少30%以上的公共綠地,小區至少有30%的社區綠地。對于俞孔堅而言,這意味著城市有足夠的空間來建造可容納大量雨水的坑塘和公園。他表示:“我們至少有40%左右的城市建設用地可用于綠色海綿建設。如果布局合理均勻,20-30%的綠色海綿足以解決城市內澇災害。在中國我們常說‘四水歸明堂,財水不外流’。我們完全有空間來儲存雨水。”


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2012 ASLA專業獎綜合設計類杰出獎——水韌性城市中的綠色海綿:群力雨洪公園。中國黑龍江省哈爾濱市/土人設計


俞孔堅簡要介紹了海綿城市理論的關鍵點。綠色基礎設施應從雨水的源頭,即降落時的雨水開始收集。“海綿”設施應分布均勻,并利用它們的滲透性來吸收雨水,而不是將水轉移到其它地方。“如果設計得當,這就是一個基于本地解決方案的水資源管理系統。”

對于鄭州的新聞報道,他指出:“媒體是在尋求矛盾點,瞄準了一些并非‘海綿’的部分。海綿城市理論只會幫助我們解決問題,因此我們需要更多的‘海綿’,而不是更少。

盡管最近一段他的演講視頻在中國已經有超過1億人次觀看,但他認為關于海綿城市的益處仍需要更好地向公眾普及。“一些人不理解海綿城市的理念,有的甚至覺得這是浪費錢。此外,中國的部分工程專業人員一直在抵制這種基于自然的海綿城市方法,因為這取代了他們的工作。”

如果海綿城市按照它應有的方式運作,“就不會再有洪水。當洪水不再帶來災難時,人們也就不再需要記住它。” 

當被問及紐約市通過建設海堤和大規模蓄水池等措施,避免海平面上升引發曼哈頓下城洪水時,他評價稱:“蓄水池是不可持續的。”混凝土水箱“必須十分龐大,因此會非常昂貴,也會產生極高的維護費用。”此外,這種方法是在浪費水。水是一種“生命資源,而且當它與植物和土壤結合時還能帶來更多的自然資產。” 

俞孔堅呼吁在中國和全球的景觀設計和土木工程行業中推廣海綿城市的建設理念。“中國的問題在于,一些城市開放空間并不能滿足雨洪管理的需求。”而雨洪管理在中國仍然被理解成是市政和水利工程的范疇

為了解決海綿城市的設計和實施問題,俞孔堅將計劃倡導一場跨學科的峰會。“這將會是一次旨在彌合分歧的高層磋商。”

此外,俞孔堅的團隊即將出版的中文新書《設計生態的績效研究》中,將提供海綿城市項目的真實數據。除了視頻資料外,他還為中國數以千計參與海綿城市建設的市長提供了參考書。

“在氣候變化的時代,洪水問題為景觀設計師提供了建立行業解決方案的機會。我們不能只依賴混凝土管道和蓄水池來解決,而是學會設計結合自然。”


2020 ASLA專業獎通用設計類榮譽獎——設計自然的深邃之形:三亞紅樹林公園。中國海南省三亞市/土人設計



Kongjian Yu Defends His Sponge City Campaign

Jared Green, 0804/2021


Two recent articles in the American media — one from The New York Times and another from The Christian Science Monitor — raised questions about the efficacy of China’s sponge city concept in the face of climate change. As storms become more powerful and release more water faster, the flood control mechanisms of Chinese cities are being overrun. News stories have focused on recent dangerous flooding in Zhengzhou, a city of 12 million on the banks of the Yellow River, which killed more than 300 people and trapped others in tunnels and subways. The articles questioned whether nature-based solutions, rooted in the sponge city approach, can handle the increasing amounts of stormwater inundating Chinese cities on rivers and coasts.

In a Zoom interview, Kongjian Yu, FASLA — founder of Turenscape, one of China’s largest landscape architecture firms, and creator of the sponge city concept — said, “first of all, Zhengzhou is not a true sponge city. There has still been way too much development and grey infrastructure.” And many Chinese cities have been using the term “sponge city as a political slogan” and a way to attract central government funding, given the deep support for the approach from Chinese president Xi Jinping.

He believes the benefits of the sponge city approach, which involves designing and constructing city-wide systems of ponds, wetlands, and parks that retain stormwater, have been proven. “Since ancient times, Chinese cities along the Yellow River with monsoon climates have used ponds to manage flooding and stormwater. So we know these approaches worked for over 2,000 years because these cities survived.”

Chinese cities today are required to maintain 30 percent of the city as green space. Another 30 percent is dedicated to community space. For Yu, this means there is more enough space to create more ponds and water-absorbing parks that can capture vast amounts of water. “In 60 percent of the land in cities, we can use nature to retain water so it doesn’t drain away. In China, we have a saying — ‘water is precious, don’t let it go.’ There is plenty of space to be used to retain water.”

Yu outlined the key components of the sponge city approach. Stormwater should be captured using green infrastructure at its source, where it falls. Sponges should be evenly distributed and permeable so they can absorb water instead of shifting it somewhere else. “If properly designed, it’s a democratic water management system” made up of very local solutions.

Yu claims that with the story of Zhengzhou, the “media is seeking conflict and targeting something that isn’t a sponge city. Sponge cities can only solve the problem. We need more sponges, not less.”

Despite a recent video of a talk he gave, which he says has been viewed by more than 100 million Chinese citizens, there still needs to be more public education about the benefits of sponge cities. “Some of the public still doesn’t understand the sponge city concept, and some may find it a waste of money. Furthermore, some civil and hydrological engineers in China have been attacking the sponge city, nature-based approach because it takes away their jobs.”

If a sponge city is working as it should, “there would be no flooding. People forget when they don’t have disasters.”

When asked about NYC’s new approach to handling sea level rise-induced flooding in lower Manhattan, which will involve constructing a sea wall along with large-scale cisterns to store water, he said: “cisterns are unsustainable.” The concrete cisterns “have to be huge and therefore expensive and high maintenance.” Furthermore, this approach wastes water, which is a “living resources and when combined with plants and soils creates more natural resources.”

Yu calls for greater capacity building among the landscape architecture and civil engineering professions in China and elsewhere in the sponge city concept. “The issue in China is that some designers and engineers are building parks but not building in the stormwater management capacity needed.” In China, stormwater is still the responsibility of civil and hydrological engineers.

To address issues with the design and implementation of sponge cities, Yu will be hosting a summit with the leadership of the civil and hydrological engineers at his research and educational campus. “We will have a high-level discussion aimed to bridge the gaps.”

Furthermore, Yu’s team is publishing a new book in Mandarin — Performance Study of Designed Ecologies — that includes real data about sponge city projects. In addition to his videos, he has also produced a textbook for China’s thousands of mayors, who he said are on board with the approach.

“Flooding in the era of climate change presents an opportunity for landscape architects. We have an opportunity to build up our approach. Landscape architects can solve these problems — not with concrete pipes and cisterns — but with nature.”


翻譯:申瑞琪



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